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A 43-y-old woman with underlying cervix carcinoma stage IIIB, status postirradiation, and diabetes mellitus with tripathy suffered from chronic diarrhoea for more than 6 months. Stool examination showed few white blood cells and red blood cells. Rectal swab cultures disclosed Cryptococcus neoformans in 2 samples obtained 2 weeks apart. The diarrhoea responded to treatment with oral fluconazole for 4 weeks. Repeated rectal swabs revealed no yeast growth. During follow-up for 4 y, she had no problems with diarrhoea. Chronic diarrhoea caused by C. neoformans is rare and clinical suspicion is needed.
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Mucormycosis (or zygomycosis) is the term for infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. Mucoraceae may produce severe disease in susceptible individuals, notably patients with diabetes and leukemia. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis most commonly manifests itself in the setting of poorly controlled diabetes, especially with ketoacidosis.
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Two novel isolates of Candida glabrata exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B (MIC, 8 μg ml(-1)) were found to be ERG2 mutants, wherein Δ(8)-sterol intermediates comprised >90% of the total cellular sterol fraction. Both harbored an alteration at Thr(121) in ERG2; the corresponding residue (Thr(119)) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for sterol Δ8-Δ7 isomerization. This constitutes the first report of C. glabrata harboring mutations in ERG2 and exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B.
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The frequency of mucosal infections caused by Candida glabrata has increased significantly. Candida glabrata infections are often resistant to many azole antifungal agents, especially fluconazole. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacies of posaconazole (PSC) and fluconazole (FLC) in the treatment of experimental C. glabrata vaginitis caused by isolates with different FLC susceptibilities. A battery of 36 vaginal isolates of C. glabrata was tested against PSC and FLC to determine their in vitro susceptibilities. The 48-h geometric mean MICs for all isolates tested were 0.156 and 4.238 μg ml(-1) for PSC and FLC respectively. Two strains of C. glabrata for which FLC MICs were different were selected for in vivo study. The treatment regimens for the vaginal murine infection model were PSC or FLC at 10 or 20 mg kg(-1) of body weight/day and 20 mg kg(-1) twice a day. Regimens with PSC at 20 mg kg(-1) once or twice a day were effective in reducing the load of both the FLC-susceptible and -resistant isolates of C. glabrata. FLC at 20 mg kg(-1) twice a day was effective in reducing the load of both the isolates of C. glabrata. PSC displayed a more effective in vivo activity than FLC in the treatment of murine C. glabrata vaginitis.
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Implant breast augmentation is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures, and fungal infection still is considered exceptional. This report presents a case of bilateral breast implant infection by multidrug-resistant Candida albicans treated with a targeted antifungal therapy.
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Prophylaxis with intravenous fluconazole (400 mg per day) or placebo continued until resolution of the underlying surgical condition.
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Although the sensitivity and positive predictive value were low, the low mortality rate after fungal infection and the mild side effects of the preemptive treatment might justify our therapeutic strategy. Based on the effectiveness, this strategy warrants further investigation.
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Antiviral drug interactions are a particular problem among immuno-compromised patients because these patients are often receiving multiple different drugs, i.e. antiretroviral drugs and drugs effective against herpesvirus. The combination of zidovudine and other antiretroviral drugs with different adverse event profiles, such as didanosine, zalcitabine and lamivudine, appears to be well tolerated and no relevant pharmacokinetic interactions have been detected. The adverse effects of didanosine and zalcitabine (i.e. peripheral neuropathy and pancreatitis) should be taken into account when administering these drugs with other drugs with the same tolerability profile. Coadministration of zidovudine and ganciclovir should be avoided because of the high rate of haematological intolerance. In contrast, zidovudine and foscarnet have synergistic effect and no pharmacokinetic interaction has been detected. No major change in zidovudine pharmacokinetics was seen when the drug was combined with aciclovir, famciclovir or interferons. However, concomitant use of zidovudine and ribavirin is not advised. Although no pharmacokinetic interaction was documented when didanosine was first administered with intravenous ganciclovir, recent studies have shown that concentration of didanosine are increased by 50% or more when coadministered with intravenous or oral ganciclovir. The mechanism of this interaction has not been elucidated. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction was demonstrated between foscarnet and didanosine or ganciclovir. Clinical trials have shown that zidovudine can be administered safely with paracetamol (acetaminophen), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oxazepam or codeine. Inhibition of zidovudine glucuronidation has been demonstrated with fluconazole, atovaquone, valproic acid (valproate sodium), methadone, probenecid and inosine pranobex; however, the clinical consequences of this have not been fully investigated. No interaction has been demonstrated with didanosine per se but care should be taken of interaction with the high pH buffer included in the tablet formulation. Drugs that need an acidic pH for absorption (ketoconazole, itraconazole but not fluconazole, dapsone, pyrimethamine) or those that can be chelated by the ions of the buffer (quinolones and tetracyclines) should be administered 2 hours before or 6 hours after didanosine. Very few interaction studies have been undertaken with other antiviral drugs. Coadministration of zalcitabine with the antacid 'Maalox' results in a reduction of its absorption. Dapsone does not influence the disposition of zalcitabine. Cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) causes an increase in lamivudine concentrations by 43%. Saquinavir, delavirdine and atevirdine appeared to be metabolised by cytochrome P450 and interactions with enzyme inducers or inhibitors could be anticipated. Some studies showed that interferons can reduce drug metabolism but only a few studies have evaluated the pathways involved. Further studies are required to better understand the clinical consequences of drug interactions with antiviral drugs. Drug-drug interactions should be considered in addition to individual drug clinical benefits and safety profiles.
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When considering addition of a bioactive material to PMMA acrylic, Chlorhexidine will result in reduced fracture toughness of the acrylic base while Fluconazole has no effect.
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To examine the effect of fluconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in healthy volunteers. Significantly increased plasma concentrations of fluvastatin have been observed following co-administration with fluconazole.