The ABCB1 diplotype was significantly associated with clinical response to modafinil, with the CGC-TTT (1236/2677/3435) being more frequent in the modafinil responder versus nonresponder group (P = 0.013). Conversely, no significant associations with clinical response to venlafaxine were found.
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Stress is believed to be associated with the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have studied mechanisms implicated in vulnerability to stress and the relationship with changes in AD-related markers.
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic illness with psychic and somatic symptoms that do not respond uniformly in the first weeks of treatment.
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Linezolid is the first in a new group of antibiotics called oxazolidinones. As a potent antimicrobial, it has activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and macrolide-resistant streptococci. There are several documented case reports of serotonin toxicity when used with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The symptoms of serotonin syndrome are alteration of mental state, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular disorders. This article presents a case of an interaction of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine and linezolid and the possible diagnostic problems that can occur. A 58-year-old woman presented with signs of systemic infection. Her medical history included bladder resection for transitional cell carcinoma, bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA), and depression, for which she was on venlafaxine. Serological and imaging investigations revealed MRSA infection of the bilateral THA. The patient was started on vancomycin and rifampicin intravenously. As intravenous access was becoming problematic and long-term antibiotics were needed, treatment was changed to oral linezolid and oral rifampicin. Four days after the commencement of linezolid, the patient was acutely disorientated with generalized cerebellar signs and no autonomic dysfunction. A computed tomography scan of the head and lumbar puncture revealed no abnormal findings. A diagnosis of serotonin toxicity was made. The patient recovered when linezolid and venlafaxine were discontinued and supportive measures were provided. Linezolid is a popular choice of antibiotic, especially for the treatment of orthopedic-related MRSA infections. Patients who commonly require linezolid as an antimicrobial are those with complex infections where other antibiotic treatment has failed. It is therefore important to be vigilant with linezolid use. Physicians should be aware of the nonspecific presentation of serotonin symptoms and the treatment.
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It is widely accepted that efficacy and speed of current antidepressants' therapeutic effect are far from optimal. Thus, there is a need for the development of antidepressants with new mechanisms of action. The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors (GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3) are among the promising targets. However, it is not clear whether or not the galanin system is involved in the antidepressant effect exerted by the currently much used inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin and/or noradrenaline. To answer this question we administered the selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine (40mg/kg/day via osmotic minipumps) to normal rats and examined the levels of the transcripts for galanin and GalR1-3 after a 3-week venlafaxine treatment in the dorsal raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex. These areas are known to be involved in the effects of antidepressants and in depression itself. Venlafaxine failed to alter the expression of any of the galanin system genes in these areas. Our results show that one of the most efficient, currently used SNRIs does not alter transcript levels of galanin or its three receptors in normal rats. These findings suggest that the pro- and antidepressive-like effects of galanin reported in animal experiments may employ a novel mechanism(s).
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Differences in behavioral ability between the depression model group and the Venlafaxine treatment group were observed using behavioral, sucrose-water and open field tests. The rat hippocampal tissue was sliced, stained and observed for BDNF distribution by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was detected by TUNEL. BDNF expression in the hippocampal tissue was detected by Western blot. Injury and apoptosis of the hippocampal tissue were observed by electron microscopy.
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Once-daily venlafaxine XR is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of major depression and concomitant anxiety and provides evidence for superiority over fluoxetine.
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Antidepressant drugs are the mainstay of drug therapy for sustained remission of symptoms. However, the clinical results are not encouraging. This lack of response could be due, among other causes, to factors that alter the metabolism of the antidepressant drug.
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Of the 880 patients at baseline, 682 completed the 8-week study. The daily doses of venlafaxine ranged between 18.75 mg and 375 mg, with 80% receiving between 75 and 150 mg/day by 8 weeks. The intent-to-treat analysis revealed that at 8 weeks, 62% (522 of 843) of patients were either much or very much improved. Nausea was the most frequent side effect, followed by somnolence, headache, and dry mouth.
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No significant difference was observed in the percent change of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS) and remission rates among treatment groups. Percent changes in Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S) and response rates were in favour of venlafaxine group at week 10. Individual HDRS items 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 demonstrated significant improvement in the sertraline group, whereas HDRS item 7 demonstrated significant improvement in the venlafaxine group. An early reduction in anxiety subscale was observed in the venlafaxine group. Menopausal status had no impact on the outcome measures.
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CYP2D6 exhibits genetic polymorphism with interindividual differences in metabolic activity. We have found a significant influence on the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine by the CYP2D6*10 allele in a Japanese population. CYP2D6.10, which is translated from CYP2D6*10, has two amino acid substitutions: Pro34 --> Ser and Ser486 --> Thr. In this study, CYP2D6.10 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its catalytic activity for CYP2D6 substrates was investigated. The CYP2D6*10B- and *10C-associated cDNA were isolated from human lymphocyte genotyped as CYP2D6*10. In addition, three forms of CYP2D6, Pro34/Thr486 (PT), Ser34/Ser486 (SS), and Pro34/Ser486 (wild type, CYP2D6.1), were constructed by PCR-site mutagenesis to clarify the effects of the two amino-acid substitutions. The expression of CYP2D6 protein was confirmed by immunoblotting using CYP2D antibody. The absorbance at 450 nm was measured by CO-reduced difference spectra from five all microsome preparations. The CYP2D6 forms with Pro34 --> Ser amino acid substitution were at a lower expression than CYP2D6.1 from the findings of immunoblotting and spectral analysis. The apparent K(m) values of CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10A, and CYP2D6.10C were 1.7, 8.5, and 49.7 microM, respectively, for bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation, and 9.0, 51.9, and 117.4 microM, respectively, for venlafaxine O-demethylation, respectively. The V(max) values were not significantly different among the three variants. These findings suggest that the decreased in vivo clearance by CYP2D6*10 was caused not only by low expression of but also the increased K(m) value of CYP2D6.