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Free radical (FR) scavenging may be a therapeutically useful adjunctive property of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In this study we have shown that SH-containing ACE inhibitors (captopril, epicaptopril, zofenopril) are potent FR scavengers at a concentration of 4 x 10(-5) M whereas non-SH ACE inhibitors (enalaprilat, quinaprilat and perindoprilat) have no FR-scavenging activity at this concentration. Furthermore, the SH-containing agents preferentially scavenged general radicals rather than superoxide radicals, i.e. suggesting that these drugs would be effective in quenching the culprit FR in ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
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When used for the treatment of hypertensive crises enalaprilat produced pronounced lowering of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Lowering of blood pressure was accompanied by regression of clinical symptoms. There were no episodes of excessive blood pressure drop. The use of enalaprilat was associated with normalization of parameters of central and cerebral hemodynamics, lessening of degree of strain of regulatory systems of the body. Diminishment of left atrial dilatation and augmentation of left ventricular ejection fraction occurred in patients with initially dilated left atrium.
The peptidases angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) mediate most of the kinin catabolism in normal cardiac tissue and are the molecular targets of inhibitory drugs that favorably influence diabetic complications. We studied the variations of those kininases in the myocardium of rats in experimental diabetes. ACE and NEP activities were significantly decreased in heart membranes 4-8weeks post-streptozotocin (STZ) injection. However, insulin-dependent diabetes did not modify significantly bradykinin (BK) half-life (t(1/2)) while the effect of both ACE (enalaprilat) and ACE and NEP (omapatrilat) inhibitors on BK degradation progressively decreased, which may be explained by the upregulation of other unidentified metallopeptidase(s). In vivo insulin treatment restored the activities of both ACE and NEP. ACE and NEP activities were significantly higher in hearts of young Zucker rats than in those of Sprague-Dawley rats. BK t(1/2) and the effects of peptidase inhibitors on t(1/2) varied accordingly. It is concluded that kininase activities are subjected to large and opposite variations in rat cardiac tissue in type I and II diabetes models. A number of tissue or molecular factors may determine these variations, such as remodeling of cardiac tissue, ectoenzyme shedding to the extracellular fluid and the pathologic regulation of peptidase gene expression.
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The efficacy of intravenous enalaprilat in lowering postoperative hypertension.
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PTE patients showed a significant shift of the Ep response curve to the left compared with controls, with 50% maximal growth occurring at a lower Ep concentration (0.3 U/ml vs. 0.95 U/ml, P<0.025.) However, there was no difference in the number of BFU-E colonies between PTE patients and controls. AII added to the growth medium produced only minor stimulation in both groups. PTE patients showed significant inhibition of BFU-E growth with 10 ng/ml enalaprilat, but controls showed no inhibition of BFU-E growth with ACEI. There was no difference in ACE polymorphism between PTE and controls.
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The present studies investigated the role of the brain renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of PRL secretion in the male rat. Blood samples were taken from conscious rats before, during, and after administration of test substances into the third cerebral ventricle. In the first series of experiments, we determined the sensitivity of the PRL response to intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) and found that PRL levels were significantly suppressed in a dose-related manner (10-500 ng). A dose of 1 ng did not significantly affect PRL values, compared to those from vehicle-injected animals. Ang II elicited water intake at doses of 50 and 500 ng, but not at the 10- or 1-ng doses. In the second series of experiments, we investigated the role of endogenous brain Ang II in the regulation of PRL secretion under basal and stimulated conditions. The endogenous system was manipulated by icv infusion of saralasin, an Ang II receptor antagonist, or icv injection of enalaprilat, a converting enzyme inhibitor, to prevent synthesis of Ang II. Neither saralasin nor enalaprilat administration produced an increase in PRL levels under basal, nonstressed conditions. However, during immobilization stress, when PRL levels increased 3-fold during icv vehicle infusion, saralasin infusion resulted in a 7-fold rise in plasma PRL titers relative to prestress baseline values. These results demonstrate that, in male rats, the inhibitory effects of icv administration of Ang II on PRL secretion are very sensitive and are observed at doses which do not affect water intake. The endogenous brain Ang II system appears not to be involved in the maintenance of the low plasma PRL levels observed under basal, nonstressed conditions. However, the system does appear to affect the magnitude of the PRL response to immobilization stress.