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The Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. C. Malbrán", conducted the Second National Multicenter Survey on Fungemia due to Yeasts in Argentina. The aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. Yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method E.Def 7.1 of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 461 viable yeasts were identified. The most frequent species were: Candida albicans (38.4 %), Candida parapsilosis (26 %), Candida tropicalis (15.4 %) and Candida glabrata (4.3 %). Other uncommon species, such as Candida viswanathii (0.6 %), Candida haemulonii (0.4 %), Candida inconspicua (0.2 %) and Candida fermentati (0.2 %) were also isolated. Among the Candida spp., 5.4 % and 1.6 % were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Itraconazole and caspofungin were the most efficient agents against all Candida spp. tested (MIC < 1 mg/l). For anidulafungin, 21.6 % of C. parapsilosis showed a MIC value of 4 mg/l. Fluconazole was less active against 53.1 % of Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC > 8 mg/l), 75 % of Trichosporon spp., and 100 % of Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The global percentage of mortality was 20 %. The presence of uncommon species reinforces the need for performing continuous laboratory surveillance in order to monitor possible changes, not only in the epidemiological distribution of species, but also in the resistance to antifungal drugs.
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Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates.
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Only a handful of cases of human Candida lambica infections have been published up to now. We report a Candida lambica fungemia in a young intravenous drug abuser. Using a popular chromogenic agar and a commercial phenotyping gallery, the fungus was initially misidentified as Candida krusei. Key tests to distinguish these closely related species are maximum growth temperature and assimilation of certain substrates present in more elaborate phenotyping assays. Definite confirmation is possible using molecular techniques. Susceptibility testing of the isolate demonstrated amphotericin B (MIC 0.125 microg/ml) susceptible, flucytosine (MIC 2 microg/ml) susceptible, itraconazole (MIC 0.064 microg/ml) susceptible, voriconazole (MIC 1 microg/ml) susceptible, and fluconazole (MIC >64 microg/ml, resistant).
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Mucosal candidiasis is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Susceptibility to such infections may be attributed to reduced host defense mechanisms and/or virulence of the organism. In the present study, we compared the virulence of mucosal Candida albicans isolates from HIV-infected people, with and without fluconazole-refractory infection, in established murine models of systemic and vaginal candidiasis. Compared with the mortality rate ( approximately 70%) after intravenous challenge with 2 virulent reference isolates, challenge with most clinical isolates (66%-77%) resulted in prolonged survival. In contrast, fungal burden induced by intravaginal challenge of nearly all (97%) isolates was similar to that of the virulent controls. There were no differences in in vitro growth rates for any of the isolates, and there was no association between reduced mortality and clinical failure to fluconazole, in vitro antifungal susceptibility, site of infection, or other host factors. These results suggest that virulence of C. albicans is tissue specific and is not a factor in the development of fluconazole-refractory infections in advanced HIV disease.
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Canine cryptococcosis cases are typically reported as neurologic, disseminated, or both. There have been few reports of other parenchymal organ involvement. Dogs infected with Cryptococcus spp. are likely to develop central nervous system involvement, and those that are severely affected are treated aggressively with surgery and/or amphotericin B. This report describes two cases of canine abdominal cryptococcosis: one boxer with primary alimentary cryptococcosis alone and one miniature schnauzer with pancreatic and disseminated cryptococcosis. The boxer is unique in that the dog suffered from primary alimentary cryptococcosis without dissemination, secondary anemia due to gastrointestinal losses, and is the second case to have Cryptococcus spp. identified on fecal examination as part of the diagnostic workup. Unlike previous reports, surgery was not performed in either case, and both dogs were treated with fluconazole alone. Currently, both dogs are free from clinical signs, and Cryptococcus spp. antigen titers are negative at 17 and 15 mo after initial presentation. These cases suggest fluconazole may be effective therapy alone for canine abdominal cryptococcosis, negating the need for high-risk therapy options such as surgery and/or amphotericin B in some cases.
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Although the etiology of intrinsic or late-onset asthma is generally not known, some cases are associated with overt dermatophyte infection and immediate hypersensitivity to proteins derived from fungi of the genus Trichophyton.
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We studied the in vitro antifungal activities of a wide range of antimycotic agents, including amorolfine, terbinafine, naftifine, five morpholine derivatives, ciclopiroxolamine, bifonazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine, amphotericin B, nystatin, and caspofungin, against Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum by conventional agar diffusion tests and by a novel sublimation method. For the sublimation method, 6 mm filter paper disks were soaked with defined amounts of antimycotic drugs, air dried, placed in the center of the lids of 9 cm Petri dishes, and incubated upside down with inoculated agar plates 10 mm above the disks. The conventional disk diffusion tests produced inhibition zones as previously described. The disk sublimation tests produced large inhibition zones with amorolfine, five amorolfine derivatives, and terbinafine, but with none of the other antifungal agents. Possible therapeutic advantages of agents, which are able to overcome air cavities in mycotic lesions, e.g. in onychomycosis, are discussed.
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I.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy has become the mainstay of antibiotic therapy for the majority of patients. I.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy is inappropriate for critically ill patients who require i.v. antibiotic therapy and should not be considered in patients who have the inability to absorb drugs. These exceptions constitute a very small percentage of hospitalized patients for which i.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy is ideal. I.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy is best achieved with antibiotics that have high bioavailability that result in the same blood and tissue concentrations of antibiotic as their intravenous counterpart and have few gastrointestinal side effects. Antibiotics ideal for i.v.-to-p.o. switch programs include chloramphenicol, clindamycin, metronidazole, TMP-SMX, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, doxycycline, minocycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and linezolid. Antibiotics that may be used in i.v.-to-p.o. switch programs that have lower bioavailability but are effective include beta-lactams and macrolides. For antibiotics with no oral formulation, e.g., carbapenems, equivalent coverage must be provided with an oral antibiotic from an unrelated class. Excluding gastrointestinal malabsorptive disorders, disease state is not a determinant of suitability for i.v.-to-p.o. switch programs. I.v.-to-p.o. switch programs should be used in patients with any infectious disease disorder for which there is effective oral therapy and is not limited to certain infectious diseases. Oral absorption of antibiotics is near normal in all but the most critically ill patients. Therefore, even in sick, hospitalized individuals, p.o. therapy is appropriate. I.v-to-p.o. switch therapy has several important advantages including decreasing drug cost (i.v. vs. p.o.), decreasing length of stay permitting earlier discharge and optimal reimbursement and decreasing or eliminating i.v. line phlebitis and sepsis with its cost implications. Clinicians should consider all patients, except the most critically ill or those unable to absorb oral medications, as candidates for treatment for most or all of their antibiotic treatment with oral antibiotics. (c) 2001 Prous Science. All rights reserved.
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After the intervention, there was a 59% reduction in antifungal prescriptions (from 194 to 80 prescriptions per 1,000 hospitalizations; P<.001). Inappropriate antifungal use decreased (from 71% to 24%; P<.001), a sustained reduction in antifungal use was observed (r=0.83; P<.001), and fluconazole use decreased (from 242 to 117 defined daily doses per 1,000 patient-days; P<.001). Reductions in the incidence of infection with Candida glabrata (r=0.69; P<.001) and Candida krusei (r=0.71; P<.001) were observed, whereas the incidence of infection with Candida albicans (r=-0.81; P<.001) increased. Total cost savings were US$31,615 during the 18-month postintervention period.
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Results reveal the emergence of antifungal-resistant species and a change in the predominant role of C. albicans as a cause of candidemia in hospitalized children.
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The threshold defining candiduria is 10(5) CFU/mL. Candiduria corresponds to many different clinical presentations from colonization to candidemia. Species found are mostly Candida albicans (19-72%) and Candida glabrata (15.6-49.4%). The colonization of ureteral stent due to Candida is of 10% and comes with candiduria in 40% of the cases, due to the presence of biofilm. Prevention of infections on ureteral stents requires a regular change of material every 3-6 months depending on the patients risk groups. In case of symptomatic candiduria on ureteral stent, an anti-fungal therapy should be initiated 48 hours to 3 weeks before the change of the stent, in order to get a sterilization of urines and prevent the recolonization of the stent. Fluconazole is the drug of choice to use.