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Chlorhexidine (mean plaque score=1.65) inhibited plaque growth significantly more than the herbal mouthrinse (mean plaque score=1.43, P<0.001). The results of the questionnaire showed that Herboral was preferred by patients for its taste, its convenience of use and taste duration (aftertaste). However, Chlorhexidine was considered to be more effective in reducing plaque as compared to Herboral.
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Two percent neem oil mixed in coconut oil, when applied to the exposed body parts of human volunteers, provided complete protection for 12 h from the bites of all anopheline species. Application of neem oil is safe and can be used for protection from malaria in endemic countries.
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Natural antifungals effectively inhibited fungal growth, especially via the inactivation of the enzymatic systems of F. graminearum. Natural antifungals inhibited mycotoxin production by the fungi. A correlation between the levels of deoxynivalenol and the expression of Tri5 gene was observed, indicating that the natural compounds could be considered alternatives to synthetic antifungals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
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Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in March, 2008 in El-Nouzha garden, Alexandria governorate. Pre-and post treatment inspections of the insects were examined and recorded before and after (2,4,8, and 12 weeks). Spraying was applied to evaluate the efficiency of the tested compounds, [Mineral oils (KZ oil and Star oil); IGRs (Chlorfluazuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen); Neem oil; emamectin benzoate and thiamethoxam]. Percentages of reduction were calculated. The ensign scale insects Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) were collected from treated Lantana camara shrubs to investigate the effect of the tested chemicals on Aspartate transferase (AST), Alanine transferase (ALT) and Alkaline-phosphatase (ALPK) of the insect enzymes activities. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the tested materials gave good results for controlling both adult and immature stages of the ensign scale insect Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) that infested Lantana camara shrubs, through affecting enzymes activities of the assigned insect pest.
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To answer the question as to whether, in patients with carious cavities of any class in primary and permanent teeth, ART restorations with high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (GIC) have a higher failure rate than amalgam restorations placed after drilling, in tooth cavities of the same size, dentition and follow-up period.
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Herbal mouthrinse was found to be a potent plaque inhibitor, though less effective than Chlorhexidine Gluconate. However, it can serve as a good alternative for the patients with special needs as in case of diabetics, xerostomics, and so on.
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Meliaceae plant products have been shown to exert pesticidal properties against a variety of insect species. In agricultural pest control programs, such products may have the potential to be used successfully as botanical insecticides. The effect of the neem (Azadirachta indica) limonoids azadirachtin, salannin, deacetylgedunin, gedunin, 17-hydroxyazadiradione and deacetylnimbin on the biology and mortality of rice leaffolder larvae was investigated. In laboratory experiments, treatment with neem limonoids suppressed leaf folding behaviour of C. medinalis. Biological parameters (larval duration, pupal duration adult longevity and fecundity) were also affected by the treatment. Azadirachtin, salannin, and deacetylgedunin showed high bioactivity at all doses, while the rest of the neem limonoids were less active, and were only biologically active at high doses. Azadirachtin was most potent in all experiments and produced almost 100% larval mortality at 1 ppm concentration. These results indicate neem limonoids affect the larval behaviour. These effects are most pronounced in early instars.
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Stratified, systematic random sampling was used for selection of 393 households from the total of 5161 households. One adult from each household was interviewed. The ethnobotonical survey was carried out during the period February 2007 to March 2007. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS, version 9.0. Range and mean were analysed and appropriate tables, graphs and percentage were displayed. Level of significance also determined by using 95% of confidence intervals and p-value.
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The changes in growth curve of the treated dermatophytes were found to be statistically significant with reference to the untreated fungi.
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We have shown that azadirachtin, a compound from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, and selected semi-synthetic derivatives, block the development of the motile male malarial gamete in vitro. Changes in the hemiacetal group at position C11 in the molecule result in a loss of activity in this assay. The motility of fully formed male gametes, and other selected flagellated cells, is unaffected by azadirachtin in vitro. These findings raise the possibility of developing azadirachtin-based compounds as antimalarials with transmission-blocking potential, as well as permitting the further study of structure-activity relationships in these compounds.