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The use of antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, or the administration of inhibitors of the synthesis or of the release of excitatory amino acids, enables the analgesic drug-dependence associated with chronic daily migraine to be overcome without any physical abstinence sign. Follow-up period indicates that negative modulators of excitatory amino-acid function can induce a stable benefit. The persistent benefit is seemingly due to an inhibitory effect on the process underlying the hyperalgesia state which is a crucial feature of migraine. It can also be suggested that the antagonist activity at NMDA receptor might play a role in very severe non-opioid analgesic drug dependence.
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Nine patients with advanced cancer suffering from idiopathic severe sweating were treated with gabapentin (600-1,800 mg/day). All patients responded to the treatment; five patients experienced transient drowsiness. Gabapentin seems to be a safe and effective treatment for idiopathic sweating in advanced cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to confirm or refute these results.
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We report a study of 62 patients with partial seizures treated with gabapentin as monotherapy for two years. After two years 78% of the patients were still on the same treatment. In 67.7% of the patients there was more than 50% reduction in major seizures and 11.1% were free of seizures. There was little difference in efficacy and tolerance when the first and second years were compared. We reviewed the data published in the literature, both in clinical trials and open studies.
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Self-inflicted transcranial injuries have been mentioned only briefly and sporadically in the literature. This article highlights a rare case of self-inflicted intracranial stabbing with a not yet reported entry route and brainstem lesion. Unlike the other fatal outcomes associated with such injuries, the patient underwent full neurological and functional recovery through a comprehensive approach that included intensive rehabilitation.
Complications and postoperative pain are major care problems that can affect the quality of health care plan.
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A total of fifty-eight patients suffering from pruritus of scar after deep partial-thickness burn were hospitalized from January 2013 to January 2014. Patients were divided into placebo group (n =18, treated with oral vitamin C in the dose of 100 mg for 4 weeks, twice per day) , cetirizine group (n = 20, treated with oral cetirizine in the dose of 10 mg for 4 weeks, twice per day) , and gabapentin group (n = 20, treated with oral gabapentin in the dose of 300 mg for 4 weeks, twice per day) . Before treatment and on post treatment day (PTD) 3 and 28, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the itching degree, and the mean scores were recorded. The remission rates of pruritus on PTD 3 and 28 were calculated. The adverse effects were observed during treatment. Data were processed with analysis of variance, q test, and chi-square test.
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Gabapentin appears to be somewhat effective as add-on treatment in a subgroup of patients with mood disorders in a naturalistic setting. Prospective, controlled studies are required to clarify these pilot data.
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There are many difficulties involved with the treatment of epilepsy, and these problems have driven the search for new agents to control epileptic seizures. Calcitonin is a peptide hormone that has been well studied and shown to have a positive effect on neuropathic and chronic pain. The mechanism by which calcitonin affects these pain syndromes is thought to be similar to the effect of antiepileptic drugs, such as pregabalin, gabapentin and carbamazepine. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of calcitonin on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in rats. The rats were divided into four groups. The first group was the control group, and the rats were given no medications. The second group was given saline+PTZ. The third group was given 50IU/kg calcitonin+PTZ, and the fourth group was given 100IU/kg calcitonin+PTZ. EEG traces, Racine's convulsion stages and the time of onset of the first myoclonic jerk were compared between the groups. Between the groups, there were significant differences in the Racine's convulsion stages, the onset of the 'first myoclonic jerk', and the rate of the spikes in the EEG traces. The differences were more pronounced in the 100IU/kg calcitonin-treated group (p<0.001). It has been stated that calcitonin relieves pain via regulating voltage-gated Ca(2+) and/or Na(+) channels. Calcitonin has a positive effect on convulsions in epileptic rats, possibly using the same mechanisms as is used in the treatment of neuropathic and chronic pain.
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Our findings showed increased activating transcription factor 3 expression in hyperglycemic culture conditions and in dorsal root ganglion neurons isolated from diabetic rats. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, a substance with known neuroprotective properties, was able to reduce diabetes mellitus-induced neuronal stress in vitro, while gabapentin and carbamazepine, currently used to treat neuropathic pain, showed only limited effects.
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Neuromuscular disease is an extremely common complication of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), manifesting in almost all dialysis patients, and leading to weakness, reduced exercise capacity, and disability. Recent studies have suggested that hyperkalemia may underlie the development of neuropathy. As such, maintenance of serum K(+) within normal limits between periods of dialysis in ESKD patients manifesting early neuropathic symptoms may reduce neuropathy development and progression. For patients with more severe neuropathic syndromes, increased dialysis frequency or a switch to high-flux dialysis may prevent further deterioration, while ultimately, renal transplantation is required to improve and restore nerve function. Exercise training programs are beneficial for ESKD patients with muscle weakness due to neuropathy or myopathy, and are capable of improving exercise tolerance and quality of life. Specific treatments have recently been evaluated for symptoms of autonomic neuropathy, including sildenafil for impotence and midodrine for intra-dialytic hypotension, and have been shown to be effective and well tolerated. Other important management strategies for neuropathy include attention to foot care to prevent callus and ulceration, vitamin supplementation, and erythropoietin. Treatment with membrane-stabilizing agents, such as amitryptiline and gabapentin, are highly effective in patients with painful neuropathy.
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1. Gabapentin (neurontin) is a novel antiepileptic agent that binds to the alpha 2 delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. The only other compound known to possess affinity for this recognition site is the (S)-(+)-enantiomer of 3-isobutylgaba. However, the corresponding (R)-(-)-enantiomer is 10 fold weaker. The present study evaluates the activity of gabapentin and the two enantiomers of 3-isobutylgaba in formalin and carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain models. 2. In the rat formalin test, S-(+)-3-isobutylgaba (1-100 mg kg-1) and gabapentin (10-300 mg kg-1) dose-dependently inhibited the late phase of the nociceptive response with respective minimum effective doses (MED) of 10 and 30 mg kg-1, s.c. This antihyperalgesic action of gabapentin was insensitive to naloxone (0.1-10.0 mg kg-1, s.c.). In contrast, the R-(-)-enantiomer of 3-isobutylgaba (1-100 mg kg-1) produced a modest inhibition of the late phase at the highest dose of 100 mg kg-1. However, none of the compounds showed any effect during the early phase of the response. 3. The s.c. administration of either S-(+)-3-isobutylgaba (1-30 mg kg-1) or gabapentin (10-100 mg kg-1), after the development of peak carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia, dose-dependently antagonized the maintenance of this response with MED of 3 and 30 mg kg-1, respectively. Similar administration of the two compounds also blocked maintenance of carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia with MED of 3 and 10 mg kg-1, respectively. In contrast, R-(-)-3-isobutylgaba failed to show any effect in the two hyperalgesia models. 4. The intrathecal administration of gabapentin dose-dependently (1-100 micrograms/animal) blocked carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In contrast, administration of similar doses of gabapentin into the inflamed paw was ineffective at blocking this response. 5. Unlike morphine, the repeated administration of gabapentin (100 mg kg-1 at start and culminating to 400 mg kg-1) over 6 days did not lead to the induction of tolerance to its antihyperalgesic action in the formalin test. Furthermore, the morphine tolerance did not cross generalize to gabapentin. The s.c. administration of gabapentin (10-300 mg kg-1), R-(-) (3-100 mg kg-1) or S-(+)-3-isobutylgaba (3-100 mg kg-1) failed to inhibit gastrointestinal motility, as measured by the charcoal meal test in the rat. Moreover, the three compounds (1-100 mg kg-1, s.c.) did not generalize to the morphine discriminative stimulus. Gabapentin (30-300 mg kg-1) and S-(+)-isobutylgaba (1-100 mg kg-1) showed sedative/ataxic properties only at the highest dose tested in the rota-rod apparatus. 6. Gabapentin (30-300 mg kg-1, s.c.) failed to show an antinociceptive action in transient pain models. It is concluded that gabapentin represents a novel class of antihyperalgesic agents.
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There is a lack of studies comparing GP and PB in treating NP in SCI. This systematic review indicates the possible efficacy of PB and GP in NP of SCI. Recommendations for future research to inform clinical practice should include cost-effectiveness studies and dose-response analysis in order to determine the schema employed and the duration of treatment.