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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulates the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and improves motor functions in animal models of parkinsonism. Sinemet is currently the most widely used drug for treating Parkinson's disease. The present study has evaluated GDNF-Sinemet interactions in parkinsonian rhesus monkeys. Both GDNF and Sinemet, when given alone, significantly improved total parkinsonian scores. The response to Sinemet did not change after intracerebroventricular vehicle injections. In contrast, there was a functional interaction between GDNF and levodopa. When comparing the levodopa dose response before and after GDNF treatment, significant behavioral improvements were seen after trophic factor administration at every levodopa dose level except 500 mg. Adverse responses to Sinemet treatment alone in parkinsonian animals included vomiting, dykinesias, dystonias, and stereotypic movements. Combined GDNF-Sinemet treatment significantly reduced the occurrence of these levodopa-induced side effects, with a >90% decrease in adverse responses seen at the mid-Sinemet (250 mg levodopa-25 mg carbidopa) dose level. The only side effect from GDNF treatment was a transitory weight loss. Thus, combined GDNF-Sinemet treatment could be of therapeutic value in treating parkinsonism, by producing a greater functional response and by mitigating adverse responses to Sinemet treatment.
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Parkinson disease (PD) is a slowly progressive, incurable, neurodegenerative disorder with progressive motor symptoms that can be managed with treatments. Levodopa is generally recognized as the most effective and widely used treatment for PD. It improves function and quality of life, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore reduces individual and societal costs. Levodopa has a relatively short half-life, however, and is quickly metabolized in the plasma, leading to fluctuations, including wearing-off of effect and inconsistent symptomatic relief as well as development of dyskinesias, with both wearing off and dyskinesias worsening with advancing disease. Immediate-release and controlled-release formulations have been used with success, but motor fluctuations remain a problem. RYTARY (levodopa and carbidopa, IPX066) is an oral extended-release therapy composed of carbidopa-levodopa microbeads designed to dissolve at various rates that allows for quick absorption and sustained levodopa release over an extended period. In development studies, RYTARY improved symptoms in patients with both early and advanced PD and offered significantly improved Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores and "on" times, without worsening troublesome dyskinesias when compared to other levodopa formulations. Tolerability and safety were comparable to other formulations. This section reviews the data that support the use of RYTARY in the treatment of PD.
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In advanced PD, IPX066 showed improved efficacy, compared with CL + E, and appeared to be well tolerated.
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Levodopa/Carbidopa, respectively, Levodopa/Benserazide is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease and during the progress of the disease, patients will inevitably need to be treated with it. Nonetheless, after a certain time period most of the patients experience side effects. Mainly disturbing are motor and non-motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Numerous options from changing the medication regimen, to continuos dopaminergic drug delivery via apomorphine or Duodopa pumps and stereotactical interventions are available. The physician's responsibility is to choose the right therapeutic procedure for each timepoint of the patient's disease. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the available strategies.
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35 Parkinson's disease patients with motor response fluctuations (RF) participated in controlled clinical trials comparing Sinemet CR to Standard Sinemet (STD) at our institutions. 13 of 25 eligible patients continued to two years (the longest possible follow-up from the second study), and 5 of 11 have continued taking CR up to 4 years. At the end of both two and four years, patients were taking significantly fewer medication doses, with a significantly longer interdose interval, and up to two years, experienced fewer "off" periods than when on Standard Sinemet (STD) alone. Most patients required STD at at least one dose each day to hasten to onset of antiparkinson effect. Sinemet CR is a useful adjunct in the long-term management of motor response fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.
Several levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) studies showed a significant reduction of OFF time and a significant increase of ON time, as well as a reduction of dyskinesia, and improvement of non-motor symptoms and quality of life. However, few studies have been conducted in a large population for more than 3 years. Interim outcomes from GREENFIELD observational study on a large Italian cohort of advanced PD patients who started LCIG in routine care between 2007 and 2014, still on treatment at the enrollment, are presented. Comparison between baseline (before LCIG start) and visit 1 (at enrollment) is reported. Primary endpoint was Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) IV Item 39; secondary endpoints were UPDRS I and II, as outcome of quality of life. Overall, 145 of 148 enrolled patients from 14 Movement Disorder Centers in Italy were evaluable with a mean LCIG treatment period of 1.38 ± 1.66 years at enrollment. Compared with baseline, the mean score regarding daily time spent in OFF (UPDRS IV Item 39) at visit 1 significantly decreased from 2.1 ± 0.8 to 0.9 ± 0.7 (57 % reduction vs baseline, P < 0.0001); UPDRS IV improved by 39 % (P < 0.0001); scores for dyskinesia duration and disability were reduced by 28 % (1.8 ± 1.0-1.3 ± 0.9; P < 0.0001) and 33 % (1.5 ± 1.1 to 1.0 ± 1.0; P < 0.0001), respectively; and the scores for painful dyskinesia and early morning dystonia were reduced by 56 % (0.9 ± 1.0-0.4 ± 0.7; P < 0.0001) and 25 % (0.4 ± 0.5-0.3 ± 0.5; P < 0.001), respectively. The preliminary results of this interim analysis support the efficacy of LCIG on motor complications and activities of daily living.
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Of 450 patients previously treated with IR CD-LD and 110 with CLE, 87.3% and 82.7% completed conversion to IPX066, respectively. At the end of conversion, average IPX066 LD daily dosages were higher than pre-conversion dosages, with a mean conversion ratio of 2.1±0.6 for IR CD-LD and 2.8±0.8 for CLE; >90% of patients took IPX066 3 or 4 times/day, compared with a median of 5 times/day at baseline in both studies. After conversion, daily "off" time significantly decreased, with no significant increase in troublesome dyskinesia. The most common adverse event reported during conversion was nausea, with an incidence of 5.3% for conversion from IR and 7.3% from CLE.
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PHNO, a new D-2 agonist, was investigated in five patients with Parkinson's disease. In an acute, open, oral, dose-ranging study comparing benefit from single doses, 4 mg of PHNO was found to be equivalent to one tablet of Sinemet 25/250 mg. Adverse reactions were those anticipated for a dopaminomimetic agent. Because of its novel structure and apparent transcutaneous penetration, further studies on PHNO are desirable.
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An analytical methodology based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) on a glassy carbon electrode and the partial least-squares (PLS-1) algorithm for the simultaneous determination of levodopa, carbidopa and benserazide in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. Some sources of bi-linearity deviation for electrochemical data are discussed and analyzed. The multivariate model was developed as a ternary calibration model and it was built and validated with an independent set of drug mixtures in presence of excipients, according with manufacturer specifications. The proposed method was applied to both the assay and the uniformity content of two commercial formulations containing mixtures of levodopa-carbidopa (10:1) and levodopa-benserazide (4:1). The results were satisfactory and statistically comparable to those obtained by applying the reference Pharmacopoeia method based on high performance liquid chromatography. In conclusion, the methodology proposed based on DPV data processed with the PLS-1 algorithm was able to quantify simultaneously levodopa, carbidopa and benserazide in its pharmaceuticals formulations using a ternary calibration model for these drugs in presence of excipients. Furthermore, the model appears to be successful even in the presence of slight potential shifts in the processed data, which have been taken into account by the flexible chemometric PLS-1 approach.
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The pharmacokinetics of Sinemet CR, a controlled-release formulation containing carbidopa and levodopa, were investigated in healthy young and elderly volunteers and in patients with Parkinson's disease. Sinemet CR produced more sustained plasma levels of levodopa, carbidopa, and 3-O methyldopa than did conventional Sinemet. In elderly subjects, the corresponding steady-state plasma levels fluctuated in narrower ranges with Sinemet CR than those following the administration of Sinemet. Results indicate a levodopa bioavailability of 71% for Sinemet CR, in contrast to a bioavailability of 99% for Sinemet for these subjects. The carbidopa bioavailability of Sinemet CR was 58% relative to that of Sinemet. Systemic decarboxylase inhibition was comparable between the 2 regimens as indicated by the renal clearance of levodopa. The absorption of levodopa was slower and more protracted with Sinemet CR than with Sinemet. Food increased the levodopa bioavailability of Sinemet CR. This increase was attributed to an increased gastric retention time. No dose-dumping occurred with Sinemet CR in either the nonfasting or the fasting state. Levodopa bioavailability was lower in young volunteers than in elderly volunteers. This was attributed to an age-related decrease in gastric emptying and in 1st-pass metabolic decarboxylation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In parkinsonian patients, as in healthy subjects, the Sinemet CR formulation produced more sustained levodopa plasma levels. These patients required a higher total daily dosage of Sinemet CR than of Sinemet for control of parkinsonian symptoms, but less frequent dosing was required during chronic therapy. Peak plasma levodopa levels increased proportionately with increasing Sinemet CR dosage. These observations were consistent with the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the formulation.