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Hydrocephalus was induced in rats by injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Two weeks after the procedure, memantine (20 mg/kg per day, 2 weeks) was given to rats with hydrocephalus in the memantine group (MG). The rest of the rats with hydrocephalus received serum physiologic (hydrocephalus group, HG). The control group (nonhydrocephalic rats, CG) was sham operated. The fourth group consisted of nonhydrocephalic rats with treated memantine (memantine control group, MC). Contractile (KCl, carbachol) and relaxant (isoprenaline, papaverine) esophageal and gastric smooth muscle reactivity were determined by in vitro muscle technique.
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Selective ligation of the L5/L6 spinal nerves produces a partial denervation of the hindpaw and has proved to be a useful model for studying the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain. Two weeks after surgery, in vivo electrophysiological studies were performed in sham operated and nerve injured rats and the responses of spinal dorsal horn neurones to controlled electrical and natural (mechanical and heat) stimuli were recorded. The systemic effects of three N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) antagonists, ketamine (1-10 mg/kg), memantine (1-20 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1-5 mg/kg) were compared. Ketamine a clinically available NMDA receptor antagonist, produced greater reductions of the postdischarge, thermal (10 mg/kg, P=0.02), and mechanical evoked responses in spinal nerve ligated (SNL) rats (von Frey 9 g, 1 mg/kg, P=0.04; 5 mg/kg, P=0.01; 10 mg/kg, P=0.05; von Frey 50 g, 5 mg/kg, P=0.02; 10 mg/kg, P=0.003). The inhibition of wind-up was comparable in both animal groups. Memantine produced powerful inhibitions of wind-up after nerve injury with little effect in sham controls (5 mg/kg, P=0.02). The postdischarge, mechanical and thermal evoked responses were reduced to similar extents by memantine in both experimental groups. The effects of MK-801 were comparable between SNL and sham operated rats for all neuronal measures (wind-up, postdischarge, thermal and noxious mechanical evoked responses). The differential blocking abilities of these antagonists on the various neuronal responses may relate to the characteristics of their voltage-dependent blockage of the channel associated with the receptor. The favourable side effect profile of memantine supports its potential use for the treatment of neuropathic pain.
Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in people with Down's syndrome is very high, and many such individuals who are older than 40 years have pathological changes characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Evidence to support treatment with Alzheimer's drugs is inadequate, although memantine is beneficial in transgenic mice. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of memantine on cognition and function in individuals with Down's syndrome.
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An open 6 month clinical trial of efficacy of acatinol has been carried out in patients with mild cognitive disorder (MCD). Forty patients received acatinol and 20 patients of comparison group were treated with piracetam. Mean age of patients was 67,7+/-7,2 years. Patient's state was assessed with a battery of scales, questionnaires and neuropsychological tests. Acatinol was prescribed in dosage 10 mg daily and piracetam in dosage 1200 mg daily at baseline, after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Thirty-eight (95%) of patients treated with acatinol and 18 (90%) of patients treated with piracetam have completed the treatment. In the acatinol group, worsening was seen in 5% of patients, no changes - in 20%, moderate improvement - in 35%, marked improvement - in 25%, substantial improvement - in 15%. Portion of patients with worsening or absence of changes was significantly lower and that with marked and substantial improvement was higher in the acatinol group compared to the piracetam group. The global assessment of cognitive functions on the MMSE scale was significantly increased to the end of 3rd month in both groups. However this improvement was maintained to the end of 6th month only in patients treated with acatinol. In the latter group, the positive changes of depressive symptoms, subjective symptoms and quality of life were shown. The positive dynamics was more pronounced in patients with dysregulation type of MCD compared to patients with amnesic type. The authors suggest a term . For this type of MCD the use of acatinol may be most necessary.
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Adjusting for influenza season year, facility bed capacity, and the proportion of residents who were vaccinated against influenza, LTCFs that initiated chemoprophylaxis 15 days after outbreak onset (25 facilities) had significantly longer duration of outbreaks (18.3 vs. 6.7 days; P < .001), higher incidence rates (10.5 cases per 100 residents vs. 6.2 cases per 100 residents; P < .023), and higher case-fatality rates (3.3 deaths per 100 residents with influenza A vs. 0.45 deaths per 100 residents with influenza A; P < .005) than did LTCFs that initiated chemoprophylaxis 5 days after outbreak onset (27 facilities).
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Schizophrenia is a severe, disabling chronic disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population. Improvements and development of more robust and hopefully predictive screening assays for this disease should enhance the identification and development of novel treatments. The present study describes a rapid and robust method for the testing of potential novel antipsychotics by utilising a simplified [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography method following memantine-induced brain activation.