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We identified 16 treatment studies: 3 psychotherapy, and 13 pharmacotherapy trials. The following medications were evaluated: lithium carbonate, valproate, lamotrigine, topiramate, naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram, quetiapine, and citicoline. SUDs have substantial impact on the recognition and management of bipolar disorder. Integrated psychosocial interventions are helpful in decreasing substance abuse. Valproate and naltrexone may decrease alcohol use and citicoline may decrease cocaine use and enhance cognition.
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Discuss the pathophysiology of the hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis caused by topiramate, the typical clinical presentation, and the recommended treatment.
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DNA clones for the beta-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 184.108.40.206) of Helicobactor pylori (hpbetaCA) were obtained. A recombinant hpbetaCA protein lacking the N-terminal 15-amino acid residues was produced and purified, representing a catalytically efficient CA. hpbetaCA was strongly inhibited (K(I)s in the range of 24-45 nM) by many sulfonamides/sulfamates, among which acetazolamide, ethoxzolamide, topiramate, and sulpiride, all clinically used drugs. The dual inhibition of alpha- and/or beta-class CAs of H. pylori might represent a useful alternative for the management of gastritis/gastric ulcers, as well as gastric cancer. This is also the first study showing that a bacterial beta-CA can be a drug target.
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Qnexa (VI-0521) is an investigational fixed-dose combination drug of phentermine and topiramate currently in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of obesity. Vivus, Inc. has demonstrated efficacy of their product and are currently addressing FDA safety concerns with the possibility of a New Drug Application (NDA) resubmission.
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This is a case of a 23-year-old African American male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that developed neutropenia on a clozapine-topiramate therapy. Clozapine had well addressed the patient's psychotic symptoms, while topiramate was used as a weight-lowering agent. The patient had fairly stable leukocyte counts for eight months on clozapine 300 mg and topiramate 100 mg daily. Doubling the dosage of topiramate led to severe neutropenia after two months. Reviewing the patient's laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of neutrophils occurring at a lower dosage, followed by a rapid decline after an increased dosage. In this case, we report that not only did topiramate act as the neutropenic agent, but also it might have done so in a dose-dependent manner.
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To evaluate whether the postoperative, antiepileptic drug (AED) regimen influences seizure recurrence after anterior temporal lobectomy when considering the putative mechanism of action and possible neuroprotective effects.
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A consecutive series of 170 patients with IHS-defined migraine who were experiencing 15 or more days of headache per month were treated with topiramate according to a uniform dosing protocol. Variables examined for their potential value in predicting treatment response included age, gender, prior experience with prophylactic therapy, prior experience with divalproex sodium specifically, headache frequency and, if present, duration of chronic daily headache (CDH). A positive treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in headache days during the second treatment month relative to the patient's pretopiramate baseline. Only patients who completed the treatment phase and achieved the 50 mg BID target dose were analyzed (efficacy analysis). Each variable prospectively selected was evaluated in regards to treatment outcome via a paired t-test, and a multiple regression analysis of all variables subsequently was performed.
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The task force of the international league against epilepsy (ILAE) proposed the "Diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and epilepsy" in 2001. The 2001 diagnostic scheme was updated in 2006. The ILAE Core Group recommended the new classification to replace the previous one (ILAE, 1981, 1989). However, the new classification is too complex to use for clinicians except expert epileptologists. About 10 new antiepileptic drugs are launched recently. Among them, gabapentine, topiramate, and lamotrigine have been approved in Japan as adjunctive therapy for medically intractable seizures. The advantage of the new antiepileptic drugs includes newer mechanism of action, broad spectrum of anti-seizure effects, fewer side effects, and lesser drug interactions. The rational polytherapy is necessary for refractory epilepsy. The majority of elderly patients with new onset epilepsy become seizure free on antiepileptic monotherapy, often with modest dose. We are now in the new era of epilepsy treatment.
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In the last 30 years, obesity has rapidly increased and obesity-related comorbidities have surged. Once considered to be a problem only in developed nations, obesity has become a global epidemic. Consequently, the costs associated with managing overweight and obesity worldwide are astronomical. The objective of this mini-review is to provide an overview of current options available for obesity management, with a focus on anti-obesity pharmacotherapies. The impact of weight loss on improving obesity-related comorbidities and risk factors has been well documented. Although established clinical guidelines suggest comprehensive lifestyle modification to induce weight loss, many patients do not respond to lifestyle interventions and may not qualify for bariatric surgery. For these patients, pharmacotherapy may serve as a therapeutic option. Several anti-obesity pharmacotherapies, such as phentermine, are indicated for short-term use and are not required to demonstrate clinically meaningful weight loss (i.e., ≥5%). For long-term weight management, the FDA has approved 5 agents so far-orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide. These drugs have shown efficacy in enabling patients to achieve clinically meaningful weight loss and improving cardiometabolic parameters. Healthcare practitioners can help alleviate the obesity epidemic by tailoring these pharmacotherapies based on individual needs, comorbidities, and associated drug safety concerns.