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We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing carbamazepine or compounds of the carbamazepine family with placebo or no intervention, whether as sole treatment or as an adjunct to antipsychotic medication for the treatment of schizophrenia and/or schizoaffective psychoses.
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The novelty of this case report concerns the association of essential erythermalgia and epilepsy and the favourable outcome achieved with antiepileptic therapy. It may well be that the patient's erythermalgia and epilepsy were both responsive to sodium channel therapy, as described with gene SCN9A disorders; however, this point could not be checked in the present case. In practice, we feel there are grounds for use of oxcarbazepine as an alternative treatment in the management of essential erythermalgia.
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For many years, epileptologists had few choices for treating seizures. Within the past 20 years several "new generation" antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were introduced. The most recent additions include oxcarbazepine, levetiracetam, and zonisamide. New agents have been shown in clinical trials to offer similar efficacy compared with older, more established AEDs, but the new agents offer important improvements in safety. Although clinical trials to specifically measure the efficacy of the new AEDs in treating idiopathic generalized epilepsy are rare, the new agents have demonstrated efficacy in treating generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. Data for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome indicate a clear effect with lamotrigine or topiramate and possibly some effect with zonisamide and levetiracetam. Studies of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and absence seizures suggest that zonisamide, lamotrigine, topiramate, and levetiracetam may be effective. Each of the new AEDs is effective in controlling partial seizures. These agents may also be appropriate choices for newly diagnosed patients or those whose conditions are refractory to treatment. In clinical trials, patients who are refractory to treatment are often given escalated doses to gain effect, but higher doses also result in more adverse events and higher withdrawal rates. Generally, the higher the dose, the greater the odds of withdrawal, with the exception of levetiracetam, which is not associated with increased withdrawal rates at high doses. Newly diagnosed patients are likely to be controlled with the first therapy given to them. It is therefore important to select an agent with the best safety, efficacy, and tolerability profile possible.
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The results of 7 open-label clinical studies on oxcarbazepine (OXC) in different neuropathic pain conditions, sharing the same protocols, were pooled together in order to evaluate whether the results obtained in the individual trials were confirmed in the pooled analysis of this larger sample, providing more evidence for efficacy and tolerability of OXC in these conditions. Eligible patients (>18 years old) with a diagnosis of neuropathic pain were enrolled in seven open-label trials, consisting of a one-week prospective Screening Phase followed by an eight-week Treatment Phase. Treatment with OXC was initiated at 150 mg/day, and the daily dose was increased by 150 mg/day on a 2-3 day basis to the maximum tolerated dose over four weeks, up to 1800 mg/day. The primary outcome measure was the change in the actual pain rating assessed on the visual analogue scale (VAS) between the end of the Screening Phase and the end of the Treatment Phase. One hundred and thirty-six patients were enrolled in the trials. The mean VAS score dropped from 77.13 at the end of the Screening Phase to 38.41 at the end of the trial for a mean reduction of 50.2%. The percentage of responders (mean VAS score reduction > or = 50%) was 49.2%. OXC was well tolerated, with the most common adverse events consisting of vertigo, tremor, somnolence, hypotension and nausea. The results of this analysis suggest that OXC administered as monotherapy is an efficacious and safe option for the symptomatic treatment of pain associated with neuropathies.
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We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.