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150 ASA physical status I, II, and III patients undergoing abdominal surgery.
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A single i.v. dose of palonosetron 0.25 mg was significantly superior to i.v. ondansetron 32 mg in the prevention of acute and delayed CINV.
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Hoodia gordonii is a plant species used traditionally in southern Africa to suppress appetite. Recently, it has been associated with a significant increase in blood pressure and pulse rate in women, suggesting sympathomimetic activity. The present study investigated the possible antidepressant-like effects of acute and repeated (15 days) administration of H. gordonii extract (25 and 50 mg/kg, po) to mice exposed to a forced swimming test (FST). Neurochemical analysis of brain monoamines was also carried out to determine the involvement of the monoaminergic system on these effects. Acute administration of H. gordonii decreased the immobility of mice in the FST without accompanying changes in general activity in the open-field test during acute treatment, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. The anti-immobility effect of H. gordonii was prevented by pretreatment of mice with PCPA [an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis], NAN-190 (a 5-HT1A antagonist), ritanserin (a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist), ondansetron (a 5-HT3A antagonist), prazosin (an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (a D1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and sulpiride (a D2 receptor antagonist). A significant increase in 5-HT levels in the striatum was detected after acute administration, while 5-HT, norepinephrine and dopamine were significantly elevated after chronic treatment. Results indicated that H. gordonii possesses antidepressant-like activity in the FST by altering the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems.
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None of the three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists significantly affected myometrial contraction.
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The study enrolled 152 patients who received 484 cycles of chemotherapy. Forty patient cycles were classified as low risk (level 0) compared to 201, 162 and 81 that were classified as high-risk levels 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Complete control of acute and delayed vomiting was comparable and was achieved in over 85 % of patients across all risk levels (p = 0.56 and p = 0.99). In contrast, complete control of acute and delayed nausea was reduced in risk levels 1 to 3 compared to level 0 (acute = 51.2, 58.0, 45.7 vs. 70.0 %; p = 0.013)-(delayed = 32.8, 45.7, 34.6 vs. 62.5 %; p < 0.001).
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In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupressure; acupuncture; corticosteroids; ginger; metoclopramide; ondansetron; prochlorperazine; promethazine; and pyridoxine (vitamin B6).
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The role of serotonergic type-3 receptors in proximal human colon is unclear. Our aims were to assess the postprandial volume and emptying of the ascending colon and to explore the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5HT3) mechanisms.
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There were no significant differences in Modified CHEOPS between the groups during postoperative 48 hours. The total PCA volume in group HK was significantly lower than that in group HO (P < 0.05). The side effects in both groups did not significantly differ except for pruritus. The levels of satisfaction from the parents were not significantly different between the groups.
In cesarean section patients given epidural anesthesia, prophylactic ondansetron, 4 mg IV, is more efficacious and has a higher patient satisfaction than that with metoclopramide, 10 mg IV, or placebo in preventing nausea and achieving complete responses during intraoperative period and the first 24-hour postdelivery period. However, there is no difference between ondansetron and metoclopramide in reducing frequency of vomiting. Prophylactic ondansetron 4 mg IV is more effective in preventing nausea than vomiting.
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Preoperative ketorolac increases perioperative bleeding among children undergoing tonsillectomy without beneficial effects.
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After minor arthroscopic shoulder surgery, the addition of a continuous interscalene ropivacaine infusion to a single-shot interscalene block reduces pain, especially with movement, during the first 24 hrs.
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The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of ondansetron HCl and to formulate a rapid-disintegrating tablet (RDT) of the taste-masked drug. Taste masking was done by complexing ondansetron HCl with aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit EPO) in different ratios by the precipitation method. Drug-polymer complexes (DPCs) were tested for drug content, in vitro taste in simulated salivary fluid (SSF) of pH 6.2, and molecular property. Complex that did not release drug in SSF was considered taste-masked and selected for formulation RDTs. The complex with drug-polymer ratio of 8:2 did not show drug release in SSF; therefore, it was selected. The properties of tablets such as tensile strength, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro disintegration time, and disintegration in the oral cavity were investigated to elucidate the wetting and disintegration characteristics of tablets. Polyplasdone XL-10 7% wt/wt gave the minimum disintegration time. Tablets of batch F4 containing spray-dried mannitol and microcrystalline cellulose in the ratio 1:1 and 7% wt/wt Polyplasdone XL-10 showed faster disintegration, within 12.5 seconds, than the marketed tablet (112 seconds). Good correlation between in vitro disintegration behavior and in the oral cavity was recognized. Taste evaluation of RDT in human volunteers revealed considerable taste masking with the degree of bitterness below threshold value (0.5) ultimately reaching to 0 within 15 minutes, whereas ondansetron HCl was rated intensely bitter with a score of 3 for 10 minutes. Tablets of batch F4 also revealed rapid drug release (t(90), 60 seconds) in SGF compared with marketed formulation (t(90), 240 seconds; P < .01). Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful masking of taste and rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets in the oral cavity.